Pattern recognition using invariants defined from higher order spectra: 2-D image inputs

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Pattern recognition using invariants defined from higher order spectra: 2-D image inputs

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Title: Pattern recognition using invariants defined from higher order spectra: 2-D image inputs
Author: Chandran, V; Carswell, B; Boashash, B; Elgar, S
Abstract: A new algorithm for extracting features from images for object recognition is described. The algorithm uses higher order spectra to provide desirable invariance properties, to provide noise immunity, and to incorporate nonlinearity into the feature extraction procedure thereby allowing the use of simple classifiers. An image can be reduced to a set of 1D functions via the Radon transform, or alternatively, the Fourier transform of each 1D projection can be obtained from a radial slice of the 2D Fourier transform of the image according to the Fourier slice theorem. A triple product of Fourier coefficients, referred to as the deterministic bispectrum, is computed for each 1D function and is integrated along radial lines in bifrequency space. Phases of the integrated bispectra are shown to be translation- and scale-invariant. Rotation invariance is achieved by a regrouping of these invariants at a constant radius followed by a second stage of invariant extraction. Rotation invariance is thus converted to translation invariance in the second step. Results using synthetic and actual images show that isolated, compact clusters are formed in feature space. These clusters are linearly separable, indicating that the nonlinearity required in the mapping from the input space to the classification space is incorporated well into the feature extraction stage. The use of higher order spectra results in good noise immunity, as verified with synthetic and real images. Classification of images using the higher order spectra-based algorithm compares favorably to classification using the method of moment invariants.
Description: This paper applies higher order spectra to image pattern recognition with an algorithm that is invariant to translation, rotation and scaling. (The most recent upgrade of the original software package that calculates Time-Frequency Distributions and Instantaneous Frequency estimators can be downloaded from the web site: www.time-frequency.net. This was the first software developed in the field, and it was first released publicly in 1987 at the 1st ISSPA conference held in Brisbane, Australia., and then continuously updated).
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10576/10718
Date: 1997-05

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