Incidence and Prevalence of Pressure Injuries in Adult Intensive Care Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
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To systematically assess the incidence and prevalence of pressure injuries in adult ICU patients and the most frequently occurring pressure injury sites. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Observational studies reporting incidence rates, cumulative incidence, and prevalence of pressure injuries. Two reviewers independently screened studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Meta-analyses of pooled weighted estimates were calculated using random effect models with 95% CIs reported due to high heterogeneity. Sensitivity analyses included studies that used skin inspection to identify a pressure injury, studies at low risk of bias, studies that excluded stage 1 and each stage of pressure injury. Twenty-two studies, 10 reporting cumulative incidence of pressure injury irrespective of stage, one reporting incidence rate (198/1,000 hospital-days), and 12 reporting prevalence were included. The 95% CI of cumulative incidence and prevalence were 10.0-25.9% and 16.9-23.8%. In studies that used skin inspection to identify pressure injuries, the 95% CI of cumulative incidence was 9.4-27.5%; all prevalence studies used skin inspection therefore the results were unchanged. In studies assessed as low risk of bias, the 95% CI of cumulative incidence and prevalence were 6.6-36.8% and 12.2-24.5%. Excluding stage 1, the 95% CI of cumulative incidence and prevalence were 0.0-23.8% and 12.4-15.5%. Five studies totalling 406 patients reported usable data on location; 95% CI of frequencies of PIs were as follows: sacrum 26.9-48.0%, buttocks 4.1-46.4%, heel 18.5-38.9%, hips 10.9-15.7%, ears 4.3-19.7%, and shoulders 0.0-40.2%. Although well-designed studies are needed to ensure the scope of the problem of pressure injuries is better understood, it is clear prevention strategies are also required.
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