Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5)-related signal transduction pathway in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells: a potential therapeutic target
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In this short communication, a novel fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5)-related signal transduction pathway in prostate cancer is reviewed. In castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells, the FABP5-related signal transduction pathway plays an important role during transformation of the cancer cells from androgen-dependent state to androgen-independent state. The detailed route of this signal transduction pathway can be described as follows: when FABP5 expression is increased as the increasing malignancy, excessive amounts of fatty acids from intra- and extra-cellular sources are transported into the nucleus of the cancer cells where they act as signalling molecules to stimulate their nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The phosphorylated or biologically activated PPARγ then modulates the expression of its downstream target regulatory genes to trigger a series of molecular events that eventually lead to enhanced tumour expansion and aggressiveness caused by an overgrowth of the cancer cells with a reduced apoptosis and an increased angiogenesis. Suppressing the FABP5-related pathway via RNA interference against FABP5 has produced a 63-fold reduction in the average size of the tumours developed from CRPC cells in nude mice, a seven-fold reduction of tumour incidence, and a 100% reduction of metastasis rate. Experimental treatments of CRPC with novel FABP5 inhibitors have successfully inhibited the malignant progression of CRPC cells both in vitro and in nude mouse. These studies suggest that FABP5-related signal transduction pathway is a novel target for therapeutic intervention of CRPC cells.
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