|Citation||Tayyem, Reema F.; Allehdan, Sabika S.; Alatrash, Razan M.; Asali, Fida F.; Bawadi, Hiba A. 2019. "Adequacy of Nutrients Intake among Jordanian Pregnant Women in Comparison to Dietary Reference Intakes." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 18: 3440.
|Abstract||Maternal nutrition is considered an important pillar in the pregnancy outcomes for both mother and infant. A mother's malnutrition and inadequate nutrient intake is associated with many undesirable pregnancy outcomes. Hence, assessing the nutritional status of the mother in the early stages of the pregnancy and preventing any inadequacy can preclude many health problems for both mother and infant. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the adequacy of nutrient intakes among Jordanian pregnant women as compared to their corresponding dietary reference intakes (DRIs). This cross-sectional study was conducted at a major University Hospital in Jordan. Three hundred pregnant women were invited to participate in the study and 286 agreed to participate. Fifty pregnant women were enrolled at week 9, then 96 pregnant women were at week 20 and 137 pregnant women were at week 30 of pregnancy. The participants completed the interview-based demographic questionnaire, pregnancy physical activity questionnaire, and quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The mean energy intake was 2768.9 ± 767.8 kcal/day and it was significantly higher in the 3rd trimester ( < 0.05). Women in the 3rd trimester consumed significantly more protein, carbohydrates, and sugar than women in the 1st and 2nd trimesters ( < 0.05). The pregnant women in the 3rd trimester consumed more sodium than women in the 1st and 2nd trimesters ( < 0.05). The vitamin K intake was significantly ( = 0.045) lower in the 2nd trimester than the 1st and 3rd trimesters. The calcium intake was significantly higher in the 3rd trimester than the 1st and 2nd trimesters ( = 0.021). The total micronutrient (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, and D, calcium, and iron) intakes derived from dietary supplements and food sources throughout the 3 trimesters was significantly higher in the 3rd trimester than the 1st and 2nd trimesters ( < 0.05). The vitamin D, calcium, and iron intakes had the most significant increases between the 1st and 3rd trimesters ( < 0.001), while folic acid intake was significantly higher in the 1st trimester than the 2nd and 3rd trimester ( < 0.001). Most women exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for sodium in all trimesters, while 82% of women exceeded the UL of folic acid in the 1st trimester and from the supplement, not the diet. While the intake of some nutrients from food alone remains below the DRIs in the diets of pregnant women, the intake of other nutrients is above the UL. Raising the awareness of pregnant women about their diet and how a supplement intake can reduce the risk of inadequate intake for many micronutrients and improve their pregnancy outcomes is of great importance.