Vascular access types in hemodialysis patients in palestine and factors affecting their distribution: A cross-sectional study
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The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is increasing considerably worldwide, and most of the patients start their therapy by hemodialysis (HD). Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the best type of vascular access due to its decreased rate of complications followed by arteriovenous graft (AVG) and finally, central venous catheters which are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we aim to find out the proportion of each vascular access type used in HD patients and to evaluate the epidemiology of HD access in Palestine. Six hundred and fifty-eight patients were enrolled in this study from 10 dialysis units distributed in Palestine. The patients were divided into incident patients or prevalent patients. Data were collected by the researchers by regular visits to the units. AVFs were the most common access type (69.3%), catheters came second (27.8%) finally, AVGs (2.9%). Temporary catheters composed 59% of all catheters, followed by the permanent catheters. The subclavian vein was the most common insertion site (68.3%), internal jugular vein (26.8%), and femoral vein (4.9%). Temporary catheters were most commonly used among incident patients (41.5%) and AVFs were the most common in the prevalent patients (75%). There was no statistically significant association between the type of dialysis access use with gender, body mass index, or diabetic status. We recommend close follow-up and early AVF creation when the patients are expected to need HD. We also highly recommend decreasing the duration of temporary catheters. Finally, further prospective studies to follow-up and evaluate the progression in the vascular access status in Palestine are needed.
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