|Abstract||We aimed to assess the association between chili consumption and kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data from 8429 adults attending the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Chili intake was assessed using a 3 day, 24 h food record in combination with household food inventory between 1991 and 2009. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, as measured in 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association. Of the 8429 participants, 1008 (12.0%) fit the definition of CKD. The prevalence of CKD was 13.1% in non-consumers of chili and 7.4% among those with chili intake above 50 g/day. After adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors (i.e., smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity), dietary patterns, and chronic conditions, the odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for CKD across chili consumption levels of none, 1-20 g/day, 20.1-50 g/day, ≥50.1 g/day were 1.00 (reference), 0.82 (0.67-1.01), 0.83 (0.65-1.05), and 0.51 (0.35-0.75), respectively (p for trend 0.001). There was no interaction between chili intake with gender, income, urbanization, hypertension, obesity, or diabetes. This longitudinal large population-based study suggests that chili consumption is inversely associated with CKD, independent of lifestyle, hypertension, obesity, and overall dietary patterns.