The environmental Kuznets curve relationship: a case study of the Gulf Cooperation Council region
By using panel data over the 1980?2017 period and two alternative indicators of environmental pollution (carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions), this paper investigates the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. Using three alternative econometric estimation techniques, we find strong evidence of a long-run inverted U-shaped relationship between real GDP per capita and both environmental indicators in the GCC region. Country-level short-run analysis indicates that the EKC hypothesis holds for Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) when CO2 emissions are used as a measure of environmental pollution. However, when SO2 emissions are used as a measure of environmental pollution, the EKC hypothesis holds for Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE. The results of a recently developed panel causality test reveal one-way causality from real GDP per capita to CO2 emissions and from real GDP per capita to SO2 emissions.
- Finance & Economics [74 items ]