Seasonal weather conditions affect training program efficiency and physical performance among special forces trainees: A long-term follow-up study
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The purpose of the present investigation was to follow-up the effect of specific commandos? training-cycles (SCTCs) on upper-body strength resistance and running endurance performance, as well as determine whether variation in seasonal parameters has any effect on physical performance. Fourteen SCTCs were held over eight years, involving 466 participants. Participants were assigned to four subgroups according to their distribution over the seasons: summer (n = 124), autumn (n = 145), winter (n = 52) and spring (n = 145). Before and after each SCTC, four tests (maximal pull-up, push-up and sit-up repetitions in 70-sec-onds for muscle strength resistance) and a 5-km cross-country run (endurance) were performed. Seasonal data were continuously recorded during all SCTCs. Body mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all groups following SCTCs. These training-cycles induced a significant increase (p<0.05) in the 70-seconds push-ups, pull-ups and sit-ups and a decrease (p<0.01) in the 5-km cross-country running time among all trainees. The main effect of the season was present in all tests (p<0.01). With regard to the percentage of changes, the results from the 70-seconds push-up, pull-up and sit-up tests were significantly higher in winter and spring (p<0.01) compared with the two other seasons, while 5-km cross-country performance improvements were significantly higher (p<0.01) in spring and summer, compared to the two other seasons. In summary,14-week of SCTCs improved upper-body strength resistance and running endurance performance in the commandos. Improvements in strength resistance performance were greater during cool weather (winter and spring), while improvements in running endurance performance were higher during hotter (spring and summer) seasons.
- Sport Sciences [124 items ]