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AuthorNiu W.
AuthorZhuo Z.
AuthorZhang X.
AuthorDu X.
AuthorYang G.
AuthorGuizani M.
Available date2020-04-09T12:27:31Z
Publication Date2019
Publication NameIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
AbstractIn recent years, malware with strong concealment uses encrypted protocol to evade detection. Thus, encrypted traffic identification can help security analysts to be more effective in narrowing down those encrypted network traffic. Existing methods are protocol independent, such as statistical-based and machine-learning-based approaches. Statistical-based approaches, however, are confined to payload length and machine-learning-based approaches have a low recognition rate for encrypted traffic using undisclosed protocols. In this paper, we proposed a heuristic statistical testing (HST) approach that combines both statistics and machine learning and has been proved to alleviate their respective deficiencies. We manually selected four randomness tests to extract small payload features for machine learning to improve real-time performances. We also proposed a simple handshake skipping method called HST-R to increase the classification accuracy. We compared our approach with other identification approaches on a testing dataset consisting of traffic that uses two known, two undisclosed, and one custom cryptographic protocols. Experimental results showed that HST-R performs better than other traditional coding-based, entropy-based, and ML-based approaches. We also showed that our handshake skipping method could generalize better for unknown cryptographic protocols. Finally, we also conducted experimental comparisons among different classification algorithms. The results showed that C4.5, with our method, has the highest identification accuracy for secure sockets layer and secure shell traffic.
SponsorBasic Research Programs of Sichuan Province, Science and Technology Foundation of State Grid Corporation of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
SubjectEncrypted traffic identification
Subjecthandshake skipping
Subjectmachine learning
Subjectstatistical testing
TitleA Heuristic Statistical Testing Based Approach for Encrypted Network Traffic Identification
Issue Number4
Volume Number68

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