Regional Well-to-Wheel Carbon, Energy, and Water Footprint Analysis of Electric Vehicles
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Adoption of alternative vehicle technologies such as electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have the potential of reducing some of the environmental impacts and reducing oil-dependency of the U.S transportation sector. However, this potential depends on the regional driving patterns and the source of the electricity generation to power PHEVs and EVs. In this study, state-specific electricity generation mix scenarios and driving patterns in Alabama, Florida, and Hawaii are considered to calculate regional impacts associated with alternative vehicle technologies (HEVs, PHEVs, EVs) compared to internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). Three electricity generation mix scenario are evaluated, which are namely; average electricity generation mix, marginal electricity generation mix, and 100% solar electricity generation mix. Well-to-wheel carbon, energy, and water footprint of these vehicles are quantified for each state and potential environmental reductions are evaluated. According to comparative evaluation for the proposed scenarios, shifting to low carbon, energy, and water intensive electricity generation mix by utilization of solar energy is crucial to achieve environmental friendly transportation in the U.S.