Strength, shrinkage, and permeability performance of seawater concrete
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Given the increasing global concern of freshwater scarcity, the use of seawater in concrete mixtures appears to be a way forward towards achieving sustainable concrete, especially in the case of non-reinforced concrete applications or with the use of noncorrosive reinforcement. This paper reports on the results of an experimental study to compare the freshwater- and seawater-mixed concretes in terms of their strength, shrinkage and permeability performance. The experimental program included the following: (i) compressive strength test (at 3, 7, 28, and 56-day ages); (ii) concrete shrinkage test (at Days 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 following mixing); and (iii) permeability tests (rapid chloride permeability and water absorption at Days 28 and 56 following mixing). As for the study results, seawater concrete showed a slightly higher early-age (i.e., till Day 7) strength performance than that of freshwater-mixed counterpart, followed by a strength performance that is 7 10% inferior to the freshwater concrete after 28 days or later. Also, the shrinkage of seawater concrete was slightly higher than that of freshwater concrete, with a difference of 5% reported after 56 days following mixing. Finally, the permeability performance of hardened concrete in seawater and freshwater mixtures was similar.
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