INNOVATIVE NANOSTRUCTURED MEMBRANES FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER DESALINATION
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Reverse osmosis(RO) is considered as the most widely utilized technique worldwide for water treatment. However, the commercial thin-film composite(TFC) membranes, which are normally made of polyamide (PA) through interfacial polymerization(IP), still experience certain major issues in performance and fabrication. The spin assisted layer-by-layer(SA-LbL) technique was established for overcoming some drawbacks with commercially available PA membranes. Also, recent investigations have recognized the nanoparticle inclusion into the selective layer as a powerful technique for improving the membrane efficiency. Hence, two different methodologies are presented here to improve the membrane performance, i.e., (1) SA-LbL technique to fabricate TFC membrane by the deposition of alternate ultrathin layers of different polyelectrolytes on polysulfone(PSF) commercial ultrafiltration membrane and (2) The nanoclay incorporation into the membranes during IP process to develop TFC membrane. Two types of nanoclays, cloisite(CS)-15A and montmorillonite(MNT), were incorporated to enhance the separation efficiency . This SA-LbL is an innovative method for the RO membrane manufacture, and has not been described earlier to the best of our knowledge. Also, this work validated for the first-time, the efficiency of the two nanoclays at the PA selective layer in the RO membrane. The membrane performance was evaluated using sodium chloride solution in a cross-flow permeation-testing cell for salt rejection and water flux. The results show significant improvement in water flux and salt rejection. The permeation test of 120 bilayers of poly(allylaminehydrochloride)/poly(vinylsulfate) on PSF substrate showed water flux of 37 L/(m2.h) and salt rejection of 53%, for a 2000-ppm salt solution feed . The highest water flux of 40 L/m2.h with 80% salt rejection, relative to the control membrane was obtained for the membranes containing nanoclays at 25oC temperature, 40.0bar pressure and 2000ppm feed concentration. Thus, our study demonstrated that these TFC membranes are promising, and these novel fabrication techniques are great tool to manufacture RO membrane.
- Theme 1: Energy, Environment & Resource Sustainability [108 items ]