Effect of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Biomarkers in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease characterised by airflow limitation. Several pro-inflammatory markers are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for COPD, and diet may be a modifiable risk factor for its progression & management. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) may be effective therapeutically in patient COPD. Aim: To determine the plasma basal level of inflammatory biomarkers in the study population, to determine the inflammatory biomarkers release from Peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMCs), and to investigate the effect of omega-3 PUFAs, on inflammatory biomarkers released from PBMCs. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 42 subjects; patients with COPD, 15 healthy smokers (HS), and 12 healthy groups (HNS). Selected biomarkers level was measured in Plasma and PBMCs by ELISA. Individual lipid profile analysis was carried out on RBCs fraction. Result: Plasma high levels of CRP and Fibrinogen and low level of CC-16 were observed in COPD patients when compared with healthy controls. The basal release of IL6, IL8, TNFα, and CD31 from PBMCs was significantly differing in COPD and HS groups compared to HNS group. Omega-3 PUFA (EPA and DHA) reduce IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α release from PBMCs. The fatty acid composition of the erythrocyte membranes in patients group was unmodified. Discussion: This study showed that high level of several inflammatory biomarkers that were detected systemically in COPD group may associate with the disease systemic inflammation. EPA and DHA possess the ability to reduce the cytokines production from COPD inflammatory immune cells. Additionally, no correlation was observed between fatty acid profile analysis and COPD.
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