The Impact of Pharmacist Care on Diabetes Outcomes in Primary Care Settings: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Reviews
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Objective: To systematically review published systematic reviews (SRs) examining the impact of pharmacist interventions in multidisciplinary diabetes care teams on diabetes-related clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes in primary care settings. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Database, Google Scholar, and PROSPERO were searched from inception to 2018. Studies published in English evaluating the effect of pharmacist interventions on diabetes outcomes were included. Two independent reviewers were involved in the screening of titles and abstracts, selection of studies, and methodological quality assessment. Results: Seven SRs were included in the study. Three of them included only randomized controlled trials, while the rest involved other study designs. Educational interventions by clinical pharmacists within the healthcare team were the most common types of interventions reported across all SRs. Pharmacist's interventions compared to usual care resulted in favorable significant improvements in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in more than 50% of the SRs. Improvement in HbA1c was the mostly reported clinical outcome of pharmacist intervention in the literature (reported in six SRs). Pharmacist's interventions led to significant cost-saving ($8-$85,000 per person per year), cost-utility, and cost-benefit (benefit-to-cost ratio range from 1:1 to 8.5:1) versus usual care. Pharmacist's interventions improved patients' quality of life (QoL) in three SRs; however, no conclusion can be drawn due to the use of diverse QoL assessment tools. Conclusions: Most SRs support the benefit of pharmacist care on diabetes-related clinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes in primary care settings. Improvements in diabetes outcomes can significantly reduce the burden of diabetes on the healthcare system. Hence, the incorporation of pharmacists into multidisciplinary diabetes care teams is beneficial and should be strongly considered by clinicians and health policymakers.
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