Ultra-processed food consumption associated with overweight/obesity among Chinese adults—Results from China health and nutrition survey 1997–2011
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The association between the consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) with over-weight/obesity in Chinese adults has not been investigated. This study included a cohort of 12,451 adults aged >20 years who participated at least twice in the China Nutrition and Health Survey (CNHS) during 1997–2011. Food intake at each survey was assessed using a 3-day 24-h dietary recall. Body weight (kg), height (m), and waist circumference (WC) were measured during the survey. UPF was defined by the NOVA classification. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were used. The mean UPF consumption of the study population (baseline mean age 43.7 years) increased from 12.0 g in 1997 to 41.5 g in 2011 with the corresponding proportion of UPF in daily diet from 1.0% to 3.6%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 for those with mean UPF consumption of 1–19 g/d, 20–49 g/d, and ≥50 g/d were 1.45 (1.26–1.65), 1.34 (1.15–1.57), and 1.45 (1.21–1.74), respectively (p-trend = 0.015), compared with the non-consumers. Similarly, the corresponding adjusted ORs (95% CI) for central obesity were 1.54 (1.38–1.72), 1.35 (1.19–1.54), and 1.50 (1.29–1.74). Higher long-term UPF consumption was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity among Chinese adults.
- Human Nutrition [154 items ]