Concentrations of essential and toxic elements and health risk assessment in brown rice from Qatari market
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Twenty-two brown rice varieties available in the Qatari market were analyzed for essential and toxic elements by ICP-MS. Found concentrations (µg/kg) were: As: 171 ± 78 (62–343), Cd: 42 ± 60 (4–253), Cr: 515 ± 69 (401–639), Pb: 6 ± 7 (<MDL-26), and U: 0.1 ± 0.5 (<MDL-2). One third of the samples contained high levels of arsenic. Significant differences (p < 0.008) in concentrations were observed for many elements based on both the grains’ country of origin and size. Calculated carcinogenic risk according to published speciation data of inorganic arsenic and chromium(VI) available in the literature for rice is > 1 in million, may possibly be > 1 in 10,000 based on conservatively high brown rice consumption rates of 200 g/d or 400 g/d in Qatar. These elevated risks may be applicable to specific population subgroups with diabetic conditions who consume only brown rice. Non-cancer risks are mainly derived from Mn, V, Se, and Cd with a hazard index > 1 from some brown rice samples.