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AuthorSteiger P.
AuthorZhang J.
AuthorHarrabi K.
AuthorHussein I.A.
AuthorDowning J.M.
AuthorMcLachlan M.A.
Available date2022-04-25T10:59:48Z
Publication Date2018
Publication NameThin Solid Films
AbstractHere we report a simple, solution based processing route for the formation of large surface area electrodes resulting in improved organic photovoltaic devices when compared with conventional planar electrodes. The nanostructured electrode arrays are formed using hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods, subsequently infiltrated with blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (IC60BA) as photoactive materials. This well studied organic photoactive blend allows the composition/processing/performance relationships to be elucidated. Using simple solution based processing the resultant nanostructured devices exhibited a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.5% compared with the best planar analogues having a PCE of around 1%. We provide detailed structural, optical and electrical characterization of the nanorod arrays, active layers and completed devices giving an insight into the influence of composition and processing on performance. Devices were fabricated in the desirable inverse geometry, allowing oxidation resistant high work-function top electrodes to be used and importantly to support the hydrothermal growth of nanorods on the bottom electrode — all processing was carried out under ambient conditions and without the insertion of a hole transport layer below the anode. The nanorods were successfully filled with the active layer materials by carrying out a brief melt processing of a spin-cast top layer followed by a subsequent thermal anneal which was identified as an essential step for the fabrication of operational devices. The growth method used for nanorod fabrication and the active layer processing are both inherently scalable, thus we present a complete and facile route for the formation of nanostructured electron acceptor layers that are suitable for high performance organic active layers.
SponsorJ.D. was supported through an EPRSC project EP/J016039/1 , J.Z. as a PhD through the China Scholarship Council . K.H., I.A.H. and M.A.M. thank the National Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation (MAARIFAH) King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology for funding through the Science & Technology Unit at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, award number 12-ENE2379-04 . All authors gratefully acknowledge Prof. John de Mello and Dr. James Bannock (Imperial) for providing the P3HT used in this study. A portion of this research (SAXS) was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility we are extremely grateful to Dr. Andrew Payzant for supporting the SAXS measurements and assisting with data interpretation.
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Inverse problems
Oxidation resistance
Zinc compounds
Zinc oxide
Electron acceptor layer
Hole transport layers
Nano-structured electrodes
Optical and electrical characterization
Organic active layers
Organic photovoltaic devices
Photoactive materials
Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2 ,5-diyl)
TitleHydrothermally grown ZnO electrodes for improved organic photovoltaic devices
Volume Number645

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