Macronutrients Intake and Risk of Stomach Cancer: Findings from Case-Control Study
Alatrash, Razan M.
Tayyem, Reema F.
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Studies on the association between gastric cancer (GC) and the intake of nutrients in Jordan are very limited, while findings from other reports on the intake of energy and macronutrients are controversial. This study aimed to examine the associations between intake of energy and macronutrients and the risk of GC in a Jordanian population. A case-control study was carried out between March 2015 and August 2018 in four major hospitals, including an oncology center in Jordan. Study participants were 173 cases with incident and histologically confirmed GC and 314 frequency-matched controls. Interview-based questionnaires were used to obtain the study’s information. Data on nutrient intake were collected using a validated Arabic food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated through multinomial logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders, including age, marital status, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, period of smoking, family history of gastric cancer, history of gastric ulcer, and physical activity. Intakes of total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, trans-fat, and omega-6 fatty acids were significantly associated with increased risk of GC. The ORs for the highest versus the lowest tertiles were 6.47 (95% Cl: 3.29–12.77), 2.97 (95% CI: 1.58–5.58), 6.84 (95% CI: 3.46–13.52), 6.19 (95% CI: 3.15–12.17), 3.05 (95% CI: 1.58–5.88), 8.11 (95% CI: 4.20–15.69), and 2.74 (95% CI: 1.47–5.09), respectively. No significant association was found for energy, protein, carbohydrate, sugar, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids. The findings of this study suggest that high intake of selected types of fats was associated with an increased risk of GC.
- Human Nutrition [327 items ]