Intersection Fog-Based Distributed Routing for V2V Communication in Urban Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
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Due to the characteristics of urban vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), many difficulties exist when designing routing protocols. In this paper, we focus on designing an efficient routing strategy for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in urban VANETs. Because, the characteristics of urban VANET routing performance are affected mainly by intersections, traffic lights, and traffic conditions, we propose an intersection-based distributed routing (IDR) strategy. In view of the fact that traffic lights are used to cause vehicles to stop at intersections, we propose an intersection vehicle fog (IVF) model, in which waiting vehicles dynamically form a collection or fog of vehicles at an intersection. Acting as infrastructure components, the IVFs proactively establish multihop links with adjacent intersections and analyze the traffic conditions on adjacent road segments using fuzzy logic. This approach offloads a large part of the routing work. During routing, the IVFs adjust the routing direction based on the real-time position of the destination, thus avoiding rerouting. Each time an IVF makes a distributed routing decision, the IDR model employs the ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm to identify an optimal routing path whose connectivity is based on the traffic conditions existing in the multihop links between intersections. Because of the high connectivity of the routing path, the model requires only packet forwarding and not carrying when transmitting along the routing path, which reduces the transmission delay and increases the transmission ratio. The presented mathematical analyses and simulation results demonstrate that our proposed routing strategy is feasible and that it achieves relatively high performance.
- Computer Science & Engineering [1669 items ]