Non-Metal-Doped Porous Carbon Nitride Nanostructures for Photocatalytic Green Hydrogen Production
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Photocatalytic green hydrogen (H2) production through water electrolysis is deemed as green, efficient, and renewable fuel or energy carrier due to its great energy density and zero greenhouse emissions. However, developing efficient and low-cost noble-metal-free photocatalysts remains one of the daunting challenges in low-cost H2 production. Porous graphitic carbon nitride (gCN) nanostructures have drawn broad multidisciplinary attention as metal-free photocatalysts in the arena of H2 production and other environmental remediation. This is due to their impressive catalytic/photocatalytic properties (i.e., high surface area, narrow bandgap, and visible light absorption), unique physicochemical durability, tunable electronic properties, and feasibility to synthesize in high yield from inexpensive and earth-abundant resources. The physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of porous gCNs can be easily optimized via the integration of earth-abundant heteroatoms. Although there are various reviews on porous gCN-based photocatalysts for various applications, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reviews on heteroatom-doped porous gCN nanostructures for the photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction (HER). It is essential to provide timely updates in this research area to highlight the research related to fabrication of novel gCNs for large-scale applications and address the current barriers in this field. This review emphasizes a panorama of recent advances in the rational design of heteroatom (i.e., P, O, S, N, and B)-doped porous gCN nanostructures including mono, binary, and ternary dopants for photocatalytic HERs and their optimized parameters. This is in addition to H2 energy storage, non-metal configuration, HER fundamental, mechanism, and calculations. This review is expected to inspire a new research entryway to the fabrication of porous gCN-based photocatalysts with ameliorated activity and durability for practical H2 production. 2022 by the authors.
- GPC Research [373 items ]