Optimal design of hybrid renewable energy systems in buildings with low to high renewable energy ratio
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We develop a simulation-based meta-heuristic approach that determines the optimal size of a hybrid renewable energy system for residential buildings. This multi-objective optimization problem requires the advancement of a dynamic multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm that maximizes the renewable energy ratio of buildings and minimizes total net present cost and CO2 emission for required system changes. Three proven performance metrics evaluate the quality of the Pareto front generated by the proposed approach. The obtained results are compared against two reported multi-objective optimization algorithms in the related literature. Finally, an existing residential apartment located in a cold Canadian climate provides a test case to apply the proposed model and optimally size a hybrid renewable energy system. In this test application, the model investigates the potential use of a heat pump, a biomass boiler, wind turbines, solar heat collectors, photovoltaic panels, and a heat storage tank to produce renewable energy for the building. Furthermore, the utilization of plug-in electric vehicles for transportation reduces gasoline use where all power is generated by the building, and the utility provides the means to match intermittent renewable generation from solar and wind to the building electrical loads. Model results show that under the chosen meteorological conditions and building parameters a wind turbine, and plug-in electric vehicle technologies are consistently the optimal option to achieve a target renewable energy ratio. In particular, the optimization result shows that the renewable energy ratio can achieve near 100% by installing a 73kW wind turbine, a 200kW biomass boiler, and using plug-in electric vehicles. This option has a net present cost of C$705,180 and results in total CO2 emission of 2.4ton/year. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the impact of economic constants on net present cost of the obtained non-dominated solutions.
- Mechanical & Industrial Systems Engineering [406 items ]