A mini review of recent progress in the removal of emerging contaminants from pharmaceutical waste using various adsorbents
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The presence of emerging contaminants (ECs) originating from pharmaceutical waste in water, wastewater, and marine ecosystems at various geographical locations has been clearly publicised. This review paper presents an overview of current monitoring data on the occurrences and distributions of ECs in coastal ecosystem, tap water, surface water, ground water, treated sewage effluents, and other sources. Technological advancements for EC removal are also presented, which include physical, chemical, biological, and hybrid treatments. Adsorption remains the most effective method to remove ECs from water bodies. Various types of adsorbents, such as activated carbons, biochars, nanoadsorbents (carbon nanotubes and graphene), ordered mesoporous carbons, molecular imprinting polymers, clays, zeolites, and metal–organic frameworks have been extensively used for removing ECs from water sources and wastewater. Extensive findings on adsorptive performances, process efficiency, reusability properties, and other related information are thoroughly discussed in this mini review.
- Chemical Engineering [1068 items ]