Epidemiology of Common Ocular Manifestations among Patients on Haemodialysis in West Bank, Palestine
Shanab, Abdul Raheem Abu
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Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ocular manifestations and associated factors in patients on haemodialysis. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients on haemodialysis from a haemodialysis unit in Nablus, Palestine, was conducted. Medical examination for ocular manifestations (intraocular pressure, cataract, retinal changes and optic neuropathy) was performed using Tono-Pen, portable slit-lamp and indirect ophthalmoscope. Predictor variables were age, gender, smoking, medical comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease [IHD], peripheral arterial disease [PAD]) and use of antiplatelet or anti-coagulation medications. Results: A total of 191 patients were included in this study. The prevalence of any ocular manifestation in at least one eye was 68%. The most common ocular manifestations were retinal changes (58%) and cataract (41%). The prevalence of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and NPDR or PDR was 51%, 16% and 65%. Two patients had PDR in one eye and NPDR in the other, and therefore, they were counted only once making the total for this category 71 rather than 73 patients. An increase in age by one year increased the odds of having cataract by 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06–1.14). Patients with diabetes had higher odds of having cataract (odds ratio [OR] = 7.43, 95% CI: 3.26–16.95) and any retinal changes (OR = 109.48, 95% CI: 33.85–354.05) than patients without diabetes. Patients with diabetes and IHD or PAD had higher odds of having NPDR than those with diabetes without IHD or PAD (OR = 7.62, 95% CI: 2.07–28.03). Conclusion: Retinal changes and cataract are common ocular manifestations among patients on haemodialysis. The findings emphasise the importance of periodic screening for ocular problems in this vulnerable population, especially older patients and those with diabetes, to prevent visual impartment and associated disability.
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