Participation patterns in elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders and their typically developing peers
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Purpose: This study aims to investigate the differences in participation patterns between children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and children with typical development (TD) in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: The study used a cross-sectional comparative design and convenient and snowball sampling. The sample consisted of 60 children (30 ASD and 30 TD), mean age (nine years), who completed the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and the Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC) via interview. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Findings: Children with ASD had significantly lower participation Diversity (U = 24.00, p < 0.000) and Intensity (U = 110.00, p < 0.000) than children with TD. In addition, children with ASD had significantly lower participation preference in Physical (U = 145.50, p < 0.000), Self-Improvement (U = 163.50, p < 0.000), Skill-Based (U = 281.00, p = 0.01), Social activities (U = 307.50, p = 0.03) and total PAC scale score (U = 246.50, p = 0.003). However, children with ASD had significantly higher Enjoyment (U = 274, p < 0.000) than children with TD. Originality/value: Children with ASD have restricted participation patterns due to certain ASD features like extreme sensory processing patterns. However, limited research compared participation patterns between school-aged children with ASD and children with TD. This study concluded that participation patterns in children with ASD are different from children with TD.
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