Energy balance and macronutrient distribution in relation to C-reactive protein and HbA1c levels among patients with type 2 diabetes
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BACKGROUND: Recently growing evidence indicates that obesity and diabetes are states of inflammation associated with elevated circulation of inflammatory mediators. Excess adiposity and oxidative stress, induced by feeding, may also lead to a state of low-grade inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating energy balance and distribution in relation to low-grade inflammation among patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study included 198 male and female patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients' weight, height, waist circumference, total body fat and truncal fat percent, energy, and macronutrient intake were measured. Venous blood specimens were collected, and levels of HbA1c and serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were determined. RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates (body mass index, total body fat, and truncal fat), energy balance was positively correlated with hs-CRP and HbA1c. A positive energy balance was also associated with increased waist circumference and truncal fat percent (p<0.05). Total energy intake, percent energy from fat (p=0.04), and percent energy from proteins (p=0.03), but not percent energy from carbohydrates (p=0.12), were also correlated with higher hs-CRP levels among poorly glycemic-controlled patients. CONCLUSION: Positive energy balance is associated with elevations in hs-CRP. Increased energy intake and increased percentages of energy from fat and protein are associated with elevated hs-CRP among patients with poor glycemic control.
- Human Nutrition [31 items ]