CO2 transportation safety regulations and energy requirement
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Carbon dioxide transportation from the capture point to the utilization or storage point plays a key function in carbon capture and storage systems. CO2 transportation modes (onshore pipelines, offshore pipelines, and ships) are introduced in this chapter. The design specifications, construction procedures, cost estimation, safety regulations, environmental and risk aspects, energy requirement, international codes and standards, legal issues, and international conventions of these modes are presented and discussed. Furthermore, the challenges and future research directions associated with CO2 transportation are concluded. The large capital and operational costs, integrity, flow assurance, and safety issues are the greatest challenges of CO2 pipeline transports. Substantial efforts must be directed to reduce these costs by improving less energy-intensive configurations. A holistic assessment of the impacts of CO2 impurities on the corrosion rate and the phase change of the transported stream is required to improve pipeline integrity. The influence of impurities and the changes in elevation on the pressure drop along the pipeline needs to be further investigated to ensure continuous flow via accurate positioning of the pumping stations. Although the long experience in the oil and gas pipeline industry forms a powerful reference, it is necessary to develop particular standards and techno-economic frameworks to mitigate the barriers facing CO2 transportation technologies.
- Mechanical & Industrial Engineering [1122 items ]