Appetite and gut hormone responses to moderate-intensity continuous exercise versus high-intensity interval exercise, in normoxic and hypoxic conditions
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This study investigated the effects of continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in combination with short exposure to hypoxia on appetite and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Twelve healthy males completed four, 2.6 h trials in a random order: (1) MIE-normoxia, (2) MIE-hypoxia, (3) HIIE-normoxia, and (4) HIIE-hypoxia. Exercise took place in an environmental chamber. During MIE, participants ran for 50 min at 70% of altitude-specific maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and during HIIE performed 6 × 3 min running at 90% V˙O2max interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% V˙O2max with a 7 min warm-up and cool-down at 70% V˙O2max (50 min total). In hypoxic trials, exercise was performed at a simulated altitude of 2980 m (14.5% O2). Exercise was completed after a standardised breakfast. A second meal standardised to 30% of participants' daily energy requirements was provided 45 min after exercise. Appetite was suppressed more in hypoxia than normoxia during exercise, post-exercise, and for the full 2.6 h trial period (linear mixed modelling, p < 0.05). Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower in hypoxia than normoxia post-exercise and for the full 2.6 h trial period (p < 0.05). PYY concentrations were higher in HIIE than MIE under hypoxic conditions during exercise (p = 0.042). No differences in GLP-1 were observed between conditions (p > 0.05). These findings demonstrate that short exposure to hypoxia causes suppressions in appetite and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations. Furthermore, appetite responses to exercise do not appear to be influenced by exercise modality.
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