Allergenicity of roasted peanuts treated with a non-human digestive protease
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Peanut allergy is a severe and lifelong type of food allergy triggered by allergenic proteins and peptides in peanuts. This study investigated the effects of ultrasound-assisted alcalase treatment on the concentrations of major allergenic proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 2) in roasted peanut kernels and the allergenicity of treated peanut extracts. Peanut kernels were sonicated for 1h in buffer solution, incubated with different amount of alcalase for various time, then vacuum dried. The variations of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 contents in soluble and insoluble portions of peanuts treatments were evaluated by sandwich ELISA and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The in vitro IgE-binding capacity of treated peanut extracts was determined by a competitive inhibition ELISA using pooled plasma of 10 peanut allergic patients. Samples with lower in vitro IgE-binding were used for human skin prick tests (SPTs) in peanut allergic individuals. Results indicate that alcalase digestion of sonicated peanuts significantly increased protein solubility while decreasing Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 concentrations in both soluble and insoluble portions of peanuts relative to untreated peanuts. The maximum reductions of Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 levels were obtained following 3hour digestion with alcalase at concentrations of 4.54 and 6.05U/100g. Samples obtained under these conditions showed the lowest in vitro IgE-binding and caused the least allergic response in human SPTs. The current study suggests that the allergenic potential of peanuts could be reduced by postharvest processing such as ultrasound-assisted enzymatic treatment of peanuts kernels.
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