Sleep Medication and Athletic Performance-The Evidence for Practitioners and Future Research Directions.
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Sleep is a restorative circadian process underpinned by numerous interrelated biological processes (Brown et al., 2012; Goel et al., 2013; Zeitzer, 2013; Vyazovskiy and Delogu, 2014). Specifically, biological rhythms in core temperature, blood pressure, immune function as well as melatonin, and other hormones demonstrate an intricate relationship with sleep (Zisapel, 2007). Therefore, whilst sufficient sleep [7–9 h is recommended by the National Sleep Foundation (NSF) for adults (Hirshkowitz et al., 2015)] facilitates an optimal internal temporal order, an increased risk of poor quality of life, morbidity, and mortality (Zisapel, 2007) are seen with insufficient sleep (<6 h is not recommended by the NSF for adults), which is currently a concern in both the general population and athletes (Halson, 2015).
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