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Author Sheppard, Charlesen_US
Author Al-Husiani, Mohsenen_US
Author Al-Jamali, F.en_US
Author Al-Yamani, Faizaen_US
Author Baldwin, Roben_US
Author Bishop, Jamesen_US
Author Benzoni, Francescaen_US
Author Dutrieux, Ericen_US
Author Dulvy, Nicholas K.en_US
Author Durvasulah, Subba Rao V.en_US
Author Jonesi, David A.en_US
Author Loughland, Ronen_US
Author Mediok, Daviden_US
Author Nithyanandan, M.en_US
Author Pilling, Graham M.en_US
Author Polikarpov, Igoren_US
Author Price, Andrew R.G.en_US
Author Purkis, Samen_US
Author Riegl, Bernharden_US
Author Saburova, Mariaen_US
Author Namin, Kaveh Samimien_US
Author Taylor, Oliveren_US
Author Wilson, Simonen_US
Author Zainal, Khadijaen_US
Available date 2009-12-24T07:35:19Zen_US
Publication Date 2009-12-14en_US
Publication Name Marine Pollution Bulletin
Citation Sheppard, C., et al. The Gulf: A young sea in decline. Mar. Pollut. Bull. (2009)en_US
Abstract This review examines the substantial changes that have taken place in marine habitats and resources of the Gulf over the past decade. The habitats are especially interesting because of the naturally high levels of temperature and salinity stress they experience, which is important in a changing world climate. However, the extent of all natural habitats is changing and their condition deteriorating because of the rapid development of the region and, in some cases from severe, episodic warming episodes. Major impacts come from numerous industrial, infrastructure-based, and residential and tourism development activities, which together combine, synergistically in some cases, to cause the observed deterioration in most benthic habitats. Substantial sea bottom dredging for material and its deposition in shallow water to extend land or to form a basis for huge developments, directly removes large areas of shallow, productive habitat, though in some cases the most important effect is the accompanying sedimentation or changes to water flows and conditions. The large scale of the activities compared to the relatively shallow and small size of the water body is a particularly important issue. Important from the perspective of controlling damaging effects is the limited cross-border collaboration and even intra-country collaboration among government agencies and large projects. Along with the accumulative nature of impacts that occur, even where each project receives environmental assessment or attention, each is treated more or less alone, rarely in combination. However, their combination in such a small, biologically interacting sea exacerbates the overall deterioration. Very few similar areas exist which face such a high concentration of disturbance, and the prognosis for the Gulf continuing to provide abundant natural resources is poor. © 2009.en_US
Language enen_US
Publisher Elsevier Ltd.en_US
Subject Arabian Gulfen_US
Subject Pollutionen_US
Subject Oil pollutionen_US
Subject Gulf Waren_US
Subject Developmenten_US
Subject Fisheriesen_US
Subject Sedimentationen_US
Subject Temperature riseen_US
Subject Climate stressesen_US
Subject Sea grassen_US
Subject Mangrovesen_US
Subject Coral reefsen_US
Subject Persian Gulfen_US
Subject Arabian Gulfen_US
Title The Gulf: A young sea in declineen_US
Type Articleen_US

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