Biotransformation of carbon dioxide in bioelectrochemical systems: State of the art and future prospects
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Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization/recycling for the production of chemicals and gaseous/liquid energy-carriers is a way to moderate the rising CO2 in the atmosphere. One of the possible solutions for the CO2 sequestration is the electrochemical reduction of this stable molecule to useful fuel/products. Nevertheless, the surface chemistry of CO2 reduction is a challenge due to the presence of large energy barriers, requiring noticeable catalysis. The recent approach of microbial electrocatalysis of CO2 reduction has promising prospects to reduce the carbon level sustainably, taking full advantage of CO2-derived chemical commodities. We review the currently investigated bioelectrochemical approaches that could possibly be implemented to enable the handling of CO2 emissions. This review covers the most recent advances in the bioelectrochemical approaches of CO2 transformations in terms of biocatalysts development and process design. Furthermore, the extensive research on carbon fixation and conversion to different value added chemicals is reviewed. The review concludes by detailing the key challenges and future prospects that could enable economically feasible microbial electrosynthesis technology.