Grass Establishment, Weed Populations and Soil Microbial Succession in Turf Grass System as Influenced by Produced Water Irrigation
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Agricultural water use is high in a world marred with water scarcity, thus necessitating alternative water resources such as wastewaters. This study attempted to use produced water (PW) to irrigate turf grass - Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum sp. Assessment on established grasses, microbial succession, heavy metal accumulation and germination tests for weeds and turf grass seeds were conducted to evaluate the effects of PW irrigation. C. dactylon depicted lower tolerance while Paspalum sp. showed better tolerance capacity towards PW. C. dactylon grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions were not able to tolerate more than 30% concentration of PW. Microbial succession study presented that PW irrigation had caused changes in the fungal species present in PW irrigated soil. Paspalum sp. was found to accumulate higher concentrations of V and Pb in shoots and Cr, Ni and As in roots in comparison to tap water treated turf grass. Germination tests recommended irrigation with PW to be performed after establishment of turf grass. Tests also revealed that PW could encourage growth of weed - Chloris virgata while discourage growth of Amaranthus viridis and Launaea mucronata. This study suggests PW can be used as an alternative water resource but after further research.
- Biological & Environmental Sciences [26 items ]