Screening Novel Molecular Targets of Metformin in Breast Cancer by Proteomic Approach.
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Metformin is a commonly prescribed antihyperglycemic drug, and has been investigated in vivo and in vitro for its effect to improve the comorbidity of diabetes and various types of cancers. Several studies investigated the therapeutic mechanisms of metformin on cancer cells, but the exact mechanism of metformin's effect on the proteomic pathways of cancer cells is yet to be further investigated. The main objective of our research line is to discover safe and alternative therapeutic options for breast cancer, we aimed in this study to design a novel "bottom up proteomics workflow" in which proteins were first broken into peptides to reveal their identity, then the proteomes were precisely evaluated using spectrometry analysis. In our study, metformin suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7 with minimal toxicity to normal breast epithelial cells MCF-10. Metformin induced apoptosis by arresting cells in G1 phase as evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Moreover, The G1 phase arrest for the MCF-7 has been confirmed by increased expression levels of p21 and reduction in cyclin D1 level. Additionally, metformin increased the expression levels of p53, Bax, Bad while it reduced expression levels of Akt, Bcl-2, and Mdm2. The study employed a serviceable strategy that investigates metformin-dependent changes in the proteome using a literature-derived network. The protein extracts of the treated and untreated cell lines were analyzed employing proteomic approaches; the findings conveyed a proposed mechanism of the effectual tactics of metformin on breast cancer cells. Metformin proposed an antibreast cancer effect through the examination of the proteomic pathways upon the MCF-7 and MCF-10A exposure to the drug. Our findings proposed prolific proteomic changes that revealed the therapeutic mechanisms of metformin on breast cancer cells upon their exposure. In conclusion, the reported proteomic pathways lead to increase the understanding of breast cancer prognosis and permit future studies to examine the effect of metformin on the proteomic pathways against other types of cancers. Finally, it suggests the possibility to develop further therapeutic generations of metformin with increased anticancer effect through targeting specific proteomes.
- Biomedical Sciences [85 items ]