The Possible Effects of Some Mineral Nutrients and Industrial Chemical Effuents on Wild Plants in Central Sudan
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The effects of some mineral nutrients and industrial chemical effluents from a textile factory and tanning activities on the growth and distribution of Typha angustata, Cyperus laevigatus. Paspalum viginatum, Cassia senna and Xanthium brasilicum at Al-Bagair Industrial Area, in central Sudan, were investigated. Three sites were selected for this study namely: the "Textile site", the main site in this study, represented by the area affected by disposals of chemical effluents from a textile factory; the "Tannery site" represented by the area covered by chemical pollutants from tanning activities; and the "Natural site" represented by an area located outside the industry polluted areas. The Textile site was characterized by good plant growth; the Tannery site, on the other hand, was characterized by complete absence of plant species, and it was included in this study to examine the factors responsible for inhibition of plant growth. The Natural site on which plants are growing naturally was selected for comparison purposes. The soil chemical analysis data showed considerable variation between the investigated sites. The plant species in the Textile site showed high levels of Na uptake accompanied by a considerable K decline. This halophytic feature happened as a regulatory mechanism by the plants in the Textile site which contains high levels of Na to avoid the toxic and osmotic effects caused by high Na concentrations. On the other hand, the high levels of K uptake by the investigated species in the Natural site, which contains low levels of soil K when compared with the Textile site, suggested that K availability in the Natural site was improved by the high levels of soil Ca in the same site. The investigated species showed different levels of mineral nutrient uptake. It was also shown that the high levels of NH4-N and P in the Textile site were reflected visually in the good performance of plant species; and this was very clearly manifested by P. viginatum which showed greatly better performance in the Textile site than in the Natural site. Moreover, it was suggested that the high levels of Na and Cr seem to be responsible for inhibition of plant growth in the Tannery site. Finally, the distribution of the investigated species in the Textile and Natural sites seem to be related with resources distribution and local environmental heterogeneity, and these most likely provide the basis of the coexistence of species in these two sites.