Evaluation of in vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Qatar
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Objectives: To investigate the in vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam against clinical isolates of MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Qatar, as well as the mechanisms of resistance. Methods: MDR P. aeruginosa isolated between October 2014 and September 2015 from all public hospitals in Qatar were included. The BD PhoenixTM system was used for identification and initial antimicrobial susceptibility testing, while Liofilchem MIC Test Strips (Liofilchem, Roseto degli Abruzzi, Italy) were used for confirmation of ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam susceptibility. Ten ceftazidime/avibactam- and/or ceftolozane/tazobactam-resistant isolates were randomly selected for WGS. Results: A total of 205 MDR P. aeruginosa isolates were included. Of these, 141 (68.8%) were susceptible to cef- tazidime/avibactam, 129 (62.9%) were susceptible to ceftolozane/tazobactam, 121 (59.0%) were susceptible to both and 56 (27.3%) were susceptible to neither. Twenty (9.8%) isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime/avibac- tam but not to ceftolozane/tazobactam and only 8 (3.9%) were susceptible to ceftolozane/tazobactam but not to ceftazidime/avibactam. Less than 50% of XDR isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime/avibactam or ceftolo- zane/tazobactam. The 10 sequenced isolates belonged to six different STs and all produced AmpC and OXA enzymes; 5 (50%) produced ESBL and 4 (40%) produced VIM enzymes. Conclusions: MDR P. aeruginosa susceptibility rates to ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam were higher than those to all existing antipseudomonal agents, except colistin, but were less than 50% in ex- tremely resistant isolates. Non-susceptibility to ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam was largely due to the production of ESBL and VIM enzymes. Ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam are pos- sible options for some patients with MDR P. aeruginosa in Qatar.
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