Sorption of benzene and naphthalene on (semi)-arid coastal soil as a function of salinity and temperature
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Considerable activities from the oil and natural gas sector have risen some concerns about the pollution of soil and groundwater by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in (semi)-arid coastal regions. The understanding of the fate and transport of PHCs in these regions is therefore necessary to develop strategies for remediation. To quantify the sorption rates of PHCs in (semi)-arid coastal soil environments, we conducted a series of controlled-laboratory batch experiments under variable temperature and salinity conditions. The soil samples were collected from the eastern coast of Qatar which is near the two largest off-shore oil and natural gas fields of the country (North Gas and Al-Shaheen Oil Fields), and the volatile benzene and naphthalene were used as PHCs. The characterization of soil samples showed sand classification with the texture class of sabkha and saline beach sandy soils with calcite as potential dominant mineral. The concentrations of dissolved chloride and sodium were found to be high (> 400 mg L?1) with a chloride-to?sodium ratio of about 1.7. The results of sorption experiments showed that the rates of naphthalene sorption were more than for benzene, where the initial aqueous concentrations of benzene and naphthalene were reduced at equilibrium due to sorption by about 14�25% and 65�79%, respectively. This difference was attributed mainly to the organic carbon-water partitioning coefficient which is higher for naphthalene. The sorption rate experiments showed that sorption was stronger for benzene under higher salinity and lower temperature conditions. The sorption of naphthalene was not affected by the change in salinity but increased by 18% when the temperature decreased from 35 to 5 �C. A sorption kinetic model was also applied to define the sorption behavior of benzene and naphthalene for the coastal soil collected in Qatar and the best fits were achieved with the Langmuir sorption isotherm.
- Civil & Architectural Engineering [73 items ]