Urine tests for diagnosis of infectious diseases and antibiotic –resistant pathogens
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The relation between disease and urine was recognized by physicians since the earliest civilization BC. Urine is considered an ideal diagnostic specimen for its noninvasive and easy method of collection. Urinalysis encompasses a wide range of tests, which includes a variety of chemical tests, urine microscopy, bacterial cultures, and molecular tests. Importantly, urine tests can diagnose patients with antibiotic-resistant urinary tract infections (UTI), directly from urine and/or bacterial culture. This chapter summarizes the most common urine tests in the infectious disease field, with a special focus on diagnosing UTI and characterizing their antibiotic-resistant. In addition to describing the advantages and limitations of these tests, the chapter explores the promising emerging technologies and methods in this field. This chapter is beneficial for scientists and healthcare workers in the field.
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