Advancements in concrete mix designs: High-performance and ultrahigh-performance concretes from 1970 to 2016
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This paper reviews the methods adopted to produce high-performance concrete (HPC) and ultrahigh-performance concrete (UHPC). The chronological development of these concretes in terms of their constituents, mixture proportions, mixing protocols, and particle packing models from selected literature are presented. The paper highlights the earliest techniques that were used to obtain cementitious materials with high strength and durability, including pressure mixing and heat curing. The paper also covers the work done on HPC and UHPC since the late 1990s and summarizes the current state of the art. Numerous mixture proportions to attain target compressive strengths between 100 and 200 MPa are presented. Higher compressive strengths are achieved with denser mixtures (with practically achievable maximum particle packing densities, i.e., interparticle pores are minimized). In other words, particle packing density is a major attribute in the achievement of low porosity, flowability, durability, and reduced defects in concrete. Therefore, models, theories, and trial methods to achieve a higher packing density in concrete are presented. - 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers.