Modeling spatiotemporal variations in leaf coloring date of three tree species across China
Autumn phenology can regulate climate-biosphere interactions and net primary production within the ecosystem. However, studies modeling spatiotemporal variations in leaf coloring date (LCD) remain limited, especially for species-specific phenology on a continental scale. Aiming to simulate spatiotemporal variations in LCD in three widespread tree species (Ulmus pumila, Fraxinus chinensis, and Robinia pseudoacacia) across China, we used phenological observation records acquired from the China Phenology Observation Network (CPON) during 1963-2010 to establish and compare three LCD models (multiple regression (MA), temperature-photoperiod (TP), spring-influenced autumn (SIA)). Subsequently, we simulated the mean LCD of the three species using the most effective model and examined the effect of geographical factors (i.e., latitude, longitude, and altitude) on LCD through multiple regression analysis. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was applied to identifying the most extensive and influential spatial modes of LCD variability and how they changed with time. The results showed that: (1) The LCD of F. chinensis was fitted better with the statistical model using monthly temperature as the independent variables (MR model). The LCD of F. chinensis was delayed by a temperature rise in August and September, but advanced by a temperature rise in May and June. The LCD of U. pumila and R. pseudoacacia was fitted better with the TP and SIA models, in which the photoperiod determined the date when the cold temperature started to accumulate. (2) The simulated mean LCD of U. pumila, F. chinensis, and R. pseudoacacia was October 6, October 16 and October 22, respectively. Latitude, longitude, and altitude had a significant influence on mean LCD of the three tree species. With increasing latitude and altitude, the LCD of all three species became earlier. However, the impact of longitude on the mean LCD varied among species. (3) For all the three species, the first EOF mode presented a consistent pattern of LCD variability across space, suggesting that an earlier or later LCD occurred simultaneously in the whole China. Meanwhile, the second EOF mode exhibited contrary signals of LCD variability in the north and south for F. chinensis and R. pseudoacacia. Over the past 50 years, the LCD of all the three species has delayed. The delaying trend revealed by the first EOF mode was 1.25 (p < 0.01), 0.21 (p < 0.01), and 0.53 days/decade (not significant) for U. pumila, F. chinensis and R. pseudoacacia, respectively. These results provide the basis for a better understanding of the phenology process in autumn and how it responds to climate change. 2017 Elsevier B.V.
- Biological & Environmental Sciences [320 items ]