Effect of yeast volatile organic compounds on ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus carbonarius and A. ochraceus
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Many foods and beverages in temperate and tropical regions are prone to contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most harmful mycotoxins for human and animal health. Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius are considered among the main responsible for OTA contamination. We have previously demonstrated that four low or non- fermenting yeasts are able to control the growth and sporulation of OTA-producing Aspergilli both in vitro and on detached grape berries: the biocontrol effect was partly due to the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Aiming to further characterise the effect of VOCs produced by biocontrol yeast strains, we observed that, beside vegetative growth and sporulation, the volatile compounds significantly reduced the production of OTA by two A. carbonarius and A. ochraceus isolates. Exposure to yeast VOCs also affected gene expression in both species, as confirmed by downregulation of polyketide synthase, non-ribosomal peptide synthase, monooxygenase, and the regulatory genes laeA and veA. The main compound of yeast VOCs was 2-phenylethanol, as detected by Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC?MS) analysis. Yeast VOCs represent a promising tool for the containment of growth and development of mycotoxigenic fungi, and a valuable aid to guarantee food safety and quality.
- Biological & Environmental Sciences [295 items ]