Identification and mapping of brain natriuretic peptide in the normal ventricular myocardium of a desert-dwelling mammalian model, the camel (Camelus dromedarius): Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is mainly produced in the ventricular myocardium, where it is released into the circulation, producing rapid volume decrease by diuresis, natriuresis, and water shift into the extracellular space, and vasodilation. The dromedary camel, a mammalian model of the desert nomads, lives under unfavorable physiological stresses during thirst, starvation, desiccation, and hot climate, thus has a special demand for water homeostasis. The present studies characterized BNP in the ventricular myocardium of healthy camels, immunohistochemically with a specific antibody, and ultrastructurally identified the endocrine property of the cardiomyocytes and Purkinje fibers. The paranuclear, granular, immunoreactive material was not restricted to the cardiomyocytes, as it was also visible in the Purkinje fibers and their associated nerve varicosities. The intensity of immunoreactive BNP showed a transmural gradient from the subepicardium to the myocardium. Intense immunoreactivity was also noted among the perivascular cardiomyocytes. At the electron microscopic level, specific granules were demonstrated in the paranuclear cytosol of cardiomyocytes and Purkinje fibers. The current study provides the first immunohistochemical localization pattern of BNP in the camel myocardium and suggests a relationship between the intense subepicardial BNP-immunoexpression and a possible translocation of the active hormone to the pericardial fluid for further paracrine actions on the heart and its coronaries.
- Biomedical Research Center Research [221 items ]