Micro shear bands: Precursor for strain localization in sheared granular materials
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Recent studies have shown that detection of the onset and evolution of micro shear bands (MSBs) in granular materials can be improved using measurements of the kinematic behavior of particles. Different methods such as the discrete-element method (DEM) or threedimensional (3D) imaging techniques have been used to measure the kinematics of individual particles within triaxial specimens. However, conventional kinematic techniques that use particle translation and/or rotation cannot detect the onset and growth of MSBs during the hardening phase of axisymmetric triaxial experiments. In order to expose the localized shearing and particle-scale behavior of triaxial specimens, a relative particle translation gradient (RPTG) concept is used to detect and expose the onset of strain localization before the peak principal stress ratio (PSR). RPTG measurements for four different granular materials are reported in this paper. The RPTG concept is used to expose the onset of MSBs during the hardening phase of the experiments. In addition, the contact number of individual particles is quantified and discussed in relation to particle rotation to investigate a particle-scale relationship between particle contacts and rotation. The effects of density, confining pressure, and particle shape on contact number are examined.
- Civil & Architectural Engineering [241 items ]