Pharmacy practice in the gulf states
The "Gulf States" are considered to represent the seven Arab countries bordering the Persian Gulf, namely, Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE). The estimated regional population is 90 million and ranges from 1.4 million in Bahrain (also the smallest country in square kilometers) to 36.5 million in Iraq. Such geographic disparity between Gulf State nations may also be mirrored in other conditions influencing pharmacy practice. Iraq, widely considered the birthplace of pharmacy where "drug stores" were established over a thousand years ago and pharmacy education first made available in the region, now faces ongoing challenges to securing sustained financial and human health-care resources as it rebuilds infrastructure following repeated and prolonged periods of instability associated with war. Conversely, Qatar, ranking as the richest country in the world, over the past two decades has heavily invested in health-care training and delivery but is currently subject to a potentially protracted conflict with neighbor and major trading partner Saudi Arabia, whose sanctions have contributed to new strains on these systems. Nevertheless, Gulf State countries are bound by largely consistent cultural norms and demographic profiles. These similarities extend to the difficulties facing pharmacist care of ethnically and linguistically diverse and typically young populations with high global prevalence chronic disease while reconciling the tensions between local customs and mindsets with international standards of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring. In this chapter, we outline health-care delivery models among private and public settings and regulations associated with medication use processes and pharmacist governance. We chronicle available evidence associated with the pharmacist workforce and roles across inpatient and outpatient settings, domestic educational and professional development opportunities, and public opinion of the pharmacist's role in their health and wellness. We describe how such factors contribute to the known current status of pharmacy practice among these countries and attempt to articulate national aspirations for the future and the strategies necessary to get there.
- Pharmacy Research [448 items ]