In vitro and In vivo Assessment of Metal Organic Framework Nanoparticles as a Potential Drug Carriers in the Cardiovascular Diseases
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Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are considered the major cause of death worldwide. Therapeutic delivery to the cardiovascular system may play an important role in the successful treatment of a variety of CVDs, including atherosclerosis, ischemic-reperfusion injury, and microvascular diseases. Despite their clinical benefits, current therapeutic drugs are hindered by their short half-life and systemic side effects. This limitation could be overcome using controlled drug release with the potential for targeted drug delivery using a nanomedicine approach. In the current study, we have assessed the use of a highly porous nano-sized preparation of iron-based Metal-organic Framework (MOF) commonly referred to as MIL-89 as potential drug carriers in the cardiovascular system. Aims: To assess the effect of MOFs on the viability and cytotoxicity of human vascular cells and the cellular uptake in vitro, and the organ-system toxicity of MOF in vivo using the Zebrafish model. Methods: Human pulmonary endothelial cells (HPAECs) and pulmonary smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) were treated with variable concentrations of MOFs. The viability, cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects were measured using AlamarBlue, LDH assay and ELISA. The cellular uptake of MOFs were assessed using light, confocal, and transmission electron microscopes and EDS analysis. Moreover, Zebrafish embryos were cultured and treated with MOFs-nanoparticles at 0 hours post fertilization (hpf) followed by different organ-specific assays at 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Results: Although MOFs affect the viability at high concentrations, it does not cause any significant cytotoxicity on HPAECs and HPASMCs. Interestingly, MOFs were shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect. Microscopic images showed an increased (concentration-dependent) cellular uptake of MOFs and transfer to daughter cells in both cell types. Moreover, the in vivo study showed that high concentrations of MOFs delay zebrafish embryos hatching and cause heart deformation, which is currently investigated using cardiotoxicity markers. Conclusion: MOFs is a promising nanoparticle prototypes for drug delivery in the cardiovascular system with high cellular uptake and anti-inflammatory effects. Further investigations of MOFs, including diseased models and drug- loaded formulation is required.
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