Pedagogical models to implement effective stem research experience programs in high school students
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High school research experience programs (HSREPs) provide opportunities for true science education and expose students to scientific investigations in laboratory settings. Various HSREPs models have been practiced to shape students’ research understandings; however, a systematic comparison of the success, challenges, and opportunities of these HSREPs has not been gauged. This article compares the effectiveness of such science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) based HSREP models reported in the last two decades. We shortlisted seventeen studies on the most effective HSREPs and identified the characteristics of these reports. Results show that student research experiences vary depending on the structure of the model used and the nature of the laboratory setting to which students are exposed. However, there is a dire need to integrate more collaborative and customized research practices to accommodate more students in HSREPs. Additionally, intensive support, mentoring, and coaching are essential to provide students a comprehensive understanding to excel in their research career pathway. Finally, there is a desperate need for further studies to develop the frameworks that can help the smooth transition of high school students into research-oriented university programs.
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