Spectral, thermal, and molecular modeling studies on the encapsulation of selected sulfonamide drugs in ?-cyclodextrin nano-cavity
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In the present work the inclusion complexation of three sulfonamide (SA) drugs, namely sulfisoxazole (SSX), sulfamethizole (SMZ), and Sulfamethazine (STM) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been investigated using UV–Vis spectroscopy, DSC, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling methods. The binding constant (Kb) of SA:β-CD inclusion complexation was determined via applying the modified form of Benesi–Hildebrand equation employing the changes in absorbance at . Obtained results revealed that SA drugs form 1:1 inclusion complex with β-CD with Kb of 650, 1532, 714 M−1 at 25 °C for SSX, SMZ, and STM, respectively. The UV–Vis absorption spectra displayed solvatochromic behavior of bathochromic shift with decreasing solvent polarity that in turn is good agreement with their behavior in the presence of β-CD in terms of environment polarity dependency. The inclusion complex formation between β-CD and tested SA drugs in liquid and solid states was confirmed by 1H NMR and DSC, respectively. Using semi-empirical quantum chemistry methods at PM3 theoretical level, inclusion complexes’ structures as well as energetic and thermodynamic parameters of encapsulation were elucidated. Obtained results revealed that the encapsulation is favorably energetic and enthalpic in nature with the inclusion of the aniline moiety through the wide rim side of β-CD nano-cavity. Further, molecular modeling revealed that β-CD encapsulation of SA drugs reduced their (EHOMO − ELUMO) gap.
- Chemistry & Earth Sciences [221 items ]