Intermediate Pyrolysis of Desert Date Shell for Conversion to High-Quality Biomaterial Resources
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Intermediate pyrolysis on desert date (Balanites aegyptiacus) shell (BAS) was accomplished for the first time to authenticate the biomass potential for producing quality biomaterials such as bio-oil and biochar. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to examine the compositions of the resultant bio-oil. The FTIR spectrum revealed the functional groups of oxygenated compounds like aldehydes, alcohols, phenolics, acids, and esters in the bio-oil. GC-MS confirmed that the bio-oil has diverse compositions of oxygenated compounds rich in acids, phenolics, and benzene derivatives. From the ultimate analysis, the bio-oil had a higher carbon content and a lower oxygen content than the corresponding BAS sample. The calorific values, by comparison, were higher than that of the BAS sample but lower than for fossil fuels. The favorable outcomes from the characters of the bio-oil and biochar suggested that BAS can be an attractive feedstock to produce high-value biomaterials.
- Chemical Engineering [1068 items ]