Does pharmacist-supervised intervention through pharmaceutical care program influence direct healthcare cost burden of newly diagnosed diabetics in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Nepal: a non-clinical randomised controlled trial approach
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Background Cost is a vital component for people with chronic diseases as treatment is expected to be long or even lifelong in some diseases. Pharmacist contributions in decreasing the healthcare cost burden of chronic patients are not well described due to lack of sufficient evidences worldwide. In developing countries like Nepal, the estimation of direct healthcare cost burden among newly diagnosed diabetics is still a challenge for healthcare professionals, and pharmacist role in patient care is still theoretical and practically non-existent. This study reports the impact of pharmacist-supervised intervention through pharmaceutical care program on direct healthcare costs burden of newly diagnosed diabetics in Nepal through a non-clinical randomised controlled trial approach. Methods An interventional, pre-post non-clinical randomised controlled study was conducted among randomly distributed 162 [control (n = 54), test 1 (n = 54) and test 2 (n = 54) groups] newly diagnosed diabetics by a consecutive sampling method for 18 months. Direct healthcare costs (direct medical and non-medical costs) from patients perspective was estimated by ‘bottom up’ approach to identify their out-of-pocket expenses (1USD = NPR 73.38) before and after intervention at the baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-ups. Test groups’ patients were nourished with pharmaceutical care intervention while control group patients only received care from physician/nurses. Non-parametric tests i.e. Friedman test, Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to find the differences in direct healthcare costs among the groups before and after the intervention (p ≤ 0.05). Results Friedman test identified significant differences in direct healthcare cost of test 1 (p < 0.001) and test 2 (p < 0.001) groups patients. However, Mann–Whitney U test justified significant differences in direct healthcare cost between control group and test 1 group, and test 2 group patients at 6-months (p = 0.009, p = 0.010 respectively), 9-months (p = 0.005, p = 0.001 respectively) and 12-months (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). Conclusion Pharmacist supervised intervention through pharmaceutical care program significantly decreased direct healthcare costs of diabetics in test groups compared to control group and hence describes pharmacist’s contribution in minimizing direct healthcare cost burden of patients.
- Pharmacy Research [128 items ]