Role of nutrition in oral and pharyngeal cancers: From etiology to prevention
Oral and pharyngeal cancers (OPC) are highly prevalent tumors and rank as the sixth most common neoplasms. Some dietary factors have been linked to increased risk of OPC such as consumption of red meats and saturated fats, whereas other dietary factors were linked to reduced risk including consumption of fruits and vegetables, legumes, unsaturated fats, adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and dietary intake of bioactive phytochemicals. The molecular mechanisms of action by which dietary factors may influence risk of OPC are not fully elucidated. However, the antioxidation power of dietary antioxidants maintains cell membrane integrity and protects DNA from damage. Other chemopreventive mechanistic actions of dietary factors include the modulation of cell-signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis.
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