Comparative Study of 11 Honey Samples Sold in Riyadh Saudi Arabia
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11 honey various samples commercially available in Saudi Arabia, were subjected to chemical, toxicological and bacteriological tests. The samples were checked for As and CN, presence of pollens, and for bacteria contamination. The carbohydrate profile was analyzed with HPLC. Fe, P, Ca, K, and Mg were measured with colorimetry. Toxic metals, As, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Hg were determined with ICP-MS. The samples were investigated by GC-MS. The investigation revealed the presence of syringaldehyde, menthofuran, trimethoxybenzyl methyl ether, musk ambrette, phenylacetaldehyde, dihydrojasmonate, maltoxazine, aspidospermine derivative, versalide, and pyran-4-derivative. 6 of the honey samples out of 11 were found to be suitable for human use. 3 samples were not recommended for human use due to the presence of toxic fragrance. 2 samples were adulterated with sucrose (sugar) and therefore were not fully authentic.